The study aimed to analyze the uses of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis and treatment in various dental specialties. This 4-year cross-sectional study analyzed the records of 1409 individuals who underwent a CBCT at the Oral and Maxillofacial Center at Sheba Medical Center, Israel. The average age of the patients was 27.9 ± 11.5 (range: 9–86 years). Patients were referred for CBCT by the following departments: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (1063; 75.5%), Endodontics (182; 12.9%), Periodontology (122; 8.6%) and Orthodontics (42; 3.0%). Most CBCT radiographs evaluated the maxilla (774; 55.0%), followed by the mandible (481; 34.1%) and both (154; 10.9%). The target anatomical structures included: bone (694; 49.3%), teeth (307; 21.7%), and both jaws (408; 29.0%). The main indications for CBCT use were: assessment of anatomical structures and implant sites (787; 55.9%), determine root canals morphology (182; 12.9%), visualization of impacted teeth, tooth alignment, and localization (177; 12.6%), suspected cysts or tumors (148; 10.5%), evaluation of Temporomandibular joint disorders (106; 7.5%) and other reasons (9; 0.6%). In 279 (19.8%) of cases, the diagnosis changed following CBCT, mainly in Orthodontics tooth analysis (28 (66.7%); p < 0.001). Practitioners and health authorities should be aware of this baseline information regarding CBCT use in the diagnosis and assessment of various oral and maxillofacial pathologies, anomalies and tooth position relative to anatomic structures. Continuing research and publications of CBCT utilization and guidelines are recommended.
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