What Does Fake Look Like? A Review of the Literature on Intentional Deception in the News and on Social Media

Alyt Damstra, Hajo G. Boomgaarden, Elena Broda, Elina Lindgren, Jesper Strömbäck, Yariv Tsfati, Rens Vliegenthart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper focuses on the content features of intentional deceptive information in the news (i.e., fake news) and on social media. Based on an extensive review of relevant literature (i.e., political journalism and communication, computational linguistics), we take stock of existing knowledge and present an overview of the structural characteristics that are indicative of intentionally deceptive information. We discuss the strength of underlying empirical evidence and identify underdeveloped areas of research. With this paper, we aim to contribute to the systematic study of intentional deception in the news and on social media and to help setting up new lines of research in which intentionally deceptive news items can be operationalized in consistent ways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournalism Studies
Volume0
Issue number0
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Disinformation
  • content features
  • fake news
  • journalism
  • linguistics
  • social media

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Communication

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