Wave-like Robotic Locomotion between Highly Flexible Surfaces and Comparison to Worm Robot Locomotion

Dan Shachaf, Rotem Katz, David Zarrouk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In a recent study, we developed a minimally actuated robot that utilizes wave-like locomotion and analyzed its kinematics. In this paper, we present an analysis of the robot’s locomotion between two highly flexible surfaces. Initially, we created a simulation model of the robot between two surfaces and determined its speed and the conditions of locomotion based on the flexibility of the surface, the geometrical parameters, and the coefficient of friction for horizontal locomotion and climbing at different angles. Our findings indicate that wave locomotion is capable of consistently advancing along the surface, even when the surface is highly flexible. Next, we developed an experimental setup and conducted multiple experiments to validate the accuracy of our simulation. The results indicate an average relative difference of approximately 11% between the speed and advance ratio of the wave crawling between the two surfaces of our simulation model and the experimental results were performed using an actual robot. Lastly, we compared the wave locomotion results to those of the worm locomotion and discovered that wave locomotion outperforms worm locomotion, especially at a higher surface flexibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number416
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023


  • bioinspired robotics
  • crawling robot
  • flexible surface
  • minimally actuated
  • undulating mechanism
  • wave-like mechanism

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biochemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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