Verifiable Computing Using Computation Fingerprints Within FHE

Shlomi Dolev, Arseni Kalma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


We suggest using Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) to be used, not only to keep the privacy of information but also, to verify computations with no additional significant overhead, using only part of the variables length for verification. This method supports the addition of encrypted values as well as multiplication of encrypted values by the addition of their logarithmic representations and is based on a separation between hardware functionalities. The computer/server performs blackbox additions and is based on the separation of server/device/hardware, such as the enclave, that may deal with additions of logarithmic values and exponentiation. The main idea is to restrict the computer operations and to use part of the variable for computation verification (computation fingerprints) and the other for the actual calculation. The verification part holds the FHE value, of which the calculated result is known (either due to computing locally once or from previously verified computations) and will be checked against the returned FHE value. We prove that a server with bit computation granularity can return consistent encrypted wrong results even when the public key is not provided. For the case of computer word granularity the verification and the actual calculation parts are separated, the verification part (the consecutive bits from the LSB to the MSB of the variables) is fixed across all input vectors. We also consider the case of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) where the computation fingerprints index in the input vectors is fixed across all vectors.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationIEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, NCA 2021
ISBN (Electronic)9781665495509
StatePublished - 31 Jan 2022
Event20th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, NCA 2021 - Boston, United States
Duration: 23 Nov 202126 Nov 2021


Conference20th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, NCA 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Cryptography
  • Fully Homomorphic Encryption
  • SIMD
  • Verification

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


Dive into the research topics of 'Verifiable Computing Using Computation Fingerprints Within FHE'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this