Introduction: Recent studies found an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and alterations in the innate immune system. However, whether the involvement of this system in two of the known genetic forms of PD, GBA-PD and LRRK2-PD, and in patients who do not carry these mutations is different, is yet to be determined. We aimed to test if genetic variations in the innate immune genes are differentially associated with PD in these subgroups. Methods: Innate immune genes were identified and classified into sub-lists according to Reactome pathways. Whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) was performed on 201 unrelated Ashkenazi-Jewish (AJ) PD patients including 104 GBA-PD, 32 LRRK2-PD, and 65 non-carriers-PD (NC-PD). To identify genes with different burden between these subgroups of PD, gene-based Sequence kernel association optimal unified test (SKAT-O) analysis was performed on innate immune pathways. Candidate variants within the significant genes were further genotyped in a cohort of 1200 unrelated, consecutively recruited, AJ-PD patients, and to evaluate their association with PD-risk their allele frequencies were compared to AJ-non-neuro cases in gnomAD database, in a stratified and un-stratified manner. Results: SKAT-O analysis showed significantly different burden for PSMB9 (GBA-PD versus NC-PD) and FGR (GBA-PD versus LRRK2-PD). Two candidate variants in PSMB9 showed an association with GBA-PD-risk and NC-PD-risk while one FGR variant showed an association with LRRK2-PD-risk. Conclusion: Our data supports differential involvement of innate immunity risk alleles in PD and emphasizes the differences between the GBA- and LRRK2-PD subgroups.
- Innate immunity
- Parkinson's disease
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geriatrics and Gerontology
- Clinical Neurology