Universal Access to Protease Chemiluminescent Probes through Solid-Phase Synthesis

Maria Ponomariov, Doron Shabat, Ori Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Protease chemiluminescent probes exhibit extremely high detection sensitivity for monitoring activity of various proteolytic enzymes. However, their synthesis, performed in solution, involves multiple synthetic and purification steps, thereby generating a major limitation for rapid preparation of such probes with diverse substrate scope. To overcome this limitation, we developed a general solid-phase-synthetic approach to prepare chemiluminescent protease probes, by peptide elongation, performed on an immobilized chemiluminescent enol-ether precursor. The enol-ether precursor is immobilized on a 2-chlorotrityl-chloride resin through an acrylic acid substituent by an acid-labile ester linkage. Next, a stepwise elongation of the peptide is performed using standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. After cleavage of the peptide-enol-ether precursor from the resin, by hexafluoro-iso-propanol, a simple oxidation of the enol-ether yields the final chemiluminescent dioxetane protease probe. To validate the applicability of the methodology, two chemiluminescent probes were efficiently prepared by solid-phase synthesis with dipeptidyl substrates designed for activation by aminopeptidase and cathepsin-B proteases. A more complex example was demonstrated by the synthesis of a chemiluminescent probe for detection of PSA, which includes a peptidyl substrate of six amino acids. We anticipate that the described methodology would be useful for rapid preparation of chemiluminescent protease probes with vast and diverse peptidyl substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2134-2140
Number of pages7
JournalBioconjugate Chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - 20 Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry


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