Trials and tribulations with VH replacement

Wenzhao Meng, Sahana Jayaraman, Bochao Zhang, Gregory W. Schwartz, Robert D. Daber, Uri Hershberg, Alfred L. Garfall, Christopher S. Carlson, Eline T. Luning Prak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


VH replacement (VHR) is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH) invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ). In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VHR, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VHR versus other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, and include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VHR.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle 10
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Issue numberJAN
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • And JH gene segments
  • DH
  • Receptor editing
  • V(D)J recombination
  • VH
  • VH replacement

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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