Macrophages are phagocytic cells distributed across tissues that sustain homeostasis by constantly probing their local environment. Upon perturbations, macrophages rewire their energy metabolism to execute their immune programs. Intensive research in the field of immunometabolism highlights cell-intrinsic immunometabolites such as succinate and itaconate as immunomodulatory signals. A role for cell-extrinsic stimuli now emerges with evidence for signals that shape macrophages' metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. In this review, we will cover macrophage immunometabolism in the gut, a complex metabolic and immunologically active tissue. During homeostasis, gut macrophages are constantly exposed to pro-inflammatory ligands from the microbiota, and in contrast, are balanced by microbiota-derived anti-inflammatory metabolites. Given their extensive metabolic changes during activation, spatial analyses of the tissue will allow the characterization of metabolic niches of macrophage in the gut. Identifying metabolic perturbations of macrophage subsets during chronic inflammation and infection can direct future tissue-specific metabolotherapies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy