The SARM1 TIR domain produces glycocyclic ADPR molecules as minor products

Jeremy Garb, Gil Amitai, Allen Lu, Gal Ofir, Alexander Brandis, Tevie Mehlman, Philip J. Kranzusch, Rotem Sorek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 (SARM1) is a protein involved in programmed death of injured axons. Following axon injury or a drug-induced insult, the TIR domain of SARM1 degrades the essential molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), leading to a form of axonal death called Wallerian degeneration. Degradation of NAD+ by SARM1 is essential for the Wallerian degeneration process, but accumulating evidence suggest that other activities of SARM1, beyond the mere degradation of NAD+, may be necessary for programmed axonal death. In this study we show that the TIR domains of both human and fruit fly SARM1 produce 10 0-20 and 10 0-30 glycocyclic ADP-ribose (gcADPR) molecules as minor products. As previously reported, we observed that SARM1 TIR domains mostly convert NAD+ to ADPR (for human SARM1) or cADPR (in the case of SARM1 from Drosophila melanogaster). However, we now show that human and Drosophila SARM1 additionally convert ∼0.1-0.5% of NAD+ into gcADPR molecules. We find that SARM1 TIR domains produce gcADPR molecules both when purified in vitro and when expressed in bacterial cells. Given that gcADPR is a second messenger involved in programmed cell death in bacteria and likely in plants, we propose that gcADPR may play a role in SARM1- induced programmed axonal death in animals.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0302251
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4
StatePublished - 18 Apr 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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