The Production of Marine Iron Objects in Europe Following the First Industrial Revolution: The Akko Tower Shipwreck Test Case

Noam Iddan, Dana Ashkenazi, Deborah Cvikel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Four ferrous objects, a winch, a heart-shaped shackle, a deadeye strap with a futtock plate, and a stud-link chain controller, that were retrieved from the Akko Tower shipwreck were studied by different methods, including conventional metallography, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, microhardness measurements, and the novel field multi-focal metallography (FMM), in order to determine their composition, microstructure, and manufacturing methods. The results of FMM agree well with conventional destructive metallography. The winch drum was made of grey cast iron and its shaft was wrought iron; the heart-shaped shackle and the deadeye strap with a futtock plate were wrought iron; and the stud-link chain controller was grey cast iron similar in composition and microstructure to the winch. All the wrought iron items revealed a similar composition and microstructure. Based on the composition, microstructure, and manufacturing processes of the four items, it is suggested that they were manufactured in the mid-nineteenth century. The high quality of these items indicates that they were produced using controlled processes, probably in the same workshop.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9845
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume13
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Keywords

  • field multi-focal metallography (FMM)
  • grey cast iron
  • metallurgy
  • microstructure
  • shipwreck
  • wrought iron

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Materials Science
  • Computer Science Applications

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The Production of Marine Iron Objects in Europe Following the First Industrial Revolution: The Akko Tower Shipwreck Test Case'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this