The KMOS3D Survey: Demographics and Properties of Galactic Outflows at z = 0.6-2.7

N. M.Förster Schreiber, H. Übler, R. L. Davies, R. Genzel, E. Wisnioski, S. Belli, T. Shimizu, D. Lutz, M. Fossati, R. Herrera-Camus, J. T. Mendel, L. J. Tacconi, D. Wilman, A. Beifiori, G. B. Brammer, A. Burkert, C. M. Carollo, R. I. Davies, F. Eisenhauer, M. FabriciusS. J. Lilly, I. Momcheva, T. Naab, E. J. Nelson, S. H. Price, A. Renzini, R. Saglia, A. Sternberg, P. Van Dokkum, S. Wuyts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a census of ionized gas outflows in 599 normal galaxies at redshift 0.6 < z < 2.7, mostly based on integral field spectroscopy of Hα, [N ii], and [S ii] line emission. The sample fairly homogeneously covers the main sequence of star-forming galaxies with masses 9.0 < log(M /M o) < 11.7, and probes into the regimes of quiescent galaxies and starburst outliers. About one-third exhibits the high-velocity component indicative of outflows, roughly equally split into winds driven by star formation (SF) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The incidence of SF-driven winds correlates mainly with SF properties. These outflows have typical velocities of ∼450 km s-1, local electron densities of n e ∼ 380 cm-3, modest mass loading factors of ∼0.1-0.2 at all galaxy masses, and energetics compatible with momentum driving by young stellar populations. The SF-driven winds may escape from log(M /M o) ≲ 10.3 galaxies, but substantial mass, momentum, and energy in hotter and colder outflow phases seem required to account for low galaxy formation efficiencies in the low-mass regime. Faster AGN-driven outflows (∼1000-2000 km s-1) are commonly detected above log(M /M o) ∼ 10.7, in up to ∼75% of log(M /M o) 11.2 galaxies. The incidence, strength, and velocity of AGN-driven winds strongly correlates with stellar mass and central concentration. Their outflowing ionized gas appears denser (n e ∼ 1000 cm-3), and possibly compressed and shock-excited. These winds have comparable mass loading factors as the SF-driven winds but carry ∼10 (∼50) times more momentum (energy). The results confirm our previous findings of high-duty-cycle, energy-driven outflows powered by AGN above the Schechter mass, which may contribute to SF quenching.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 10 Apr 2019


  • Galaxies: Evolution
  • galaxies: High-redshift
  • galaxies: Kinematics and dynamics
  • infrared: Galaxies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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