In recent years dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has greatly expanded the range of materials systems that can be studied by solid state NMR spectroscopy. To date, the majority of systems studied by DNP were insulating materials including organic and inorganic solids. However, many technologically-relevant materials used in energy conversion and storage systems are electrically conductive to some extent or are employed as composites containing conductive additives. Such materials introduce challenges in their study by DNP-NMR which include microwave absorption and sample heating that were not thoroughly investigated so far.
Here we examine several commercial carbon allotropes, commonly employed as electrodes or conductive additives, and consider their effect on the extent of solvent polarization achieved in DNP from nitroxide biradicals. We then address the effect of sample conductivity systematically by studying a series of carbons with increasing electrical conductivity prepared via glucose carbonization. THz spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the extent of vw absorption. Our results show that while the DNP performance significantly drops in samples containing the highly conductive carbons, sufficient signal enhancement can still be achieved with some compromise on conductivity. Furthermore, we show that the deleterious effect of conductive additives on DNP enhancements can be partially overcome through pulse-DNP experiments.
- Electrical conductivity
- Pulse DNP
- Solid state NMR
- THz spectroscopy
- μw absorption
- μw heating
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics