Certain protist lineages bear cytoskeletal structures that are germane to them and define their individual group. Trichomonadida are excavate parasites united by a unique cytoskeletal framework, which includes tubulin-based structures such as the pelta and axostyle, but also other filaments such as the striated costa whose protein composition remains unknown. We determined the proteome of the detergent-resistant cytoskeleton of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. 203 proteins with homology to Trichomonas vaginalis were identified, which contain significantly more long coiled-coil regions than control protein sets. Five candidates were shown to associate with previously described cytoskeletal structures including the costa and the expression of a single T. vaginalis protein in T. gallinarum induced the formation of accumulated, striated filaments. Our data suggests that filament-forming proteins of protists other than actin and tubulin share common structural properties with metazoan intermediate filament proteins, while not being homologous. These filament-forming proteins might have evolved many times independently in eukaryotes, or simultaneously in a common ancestor but with different evolutionary trajectories downstream in different phyla. The broad variety of filament-forming proteins uncovered, and with no homologs outside of the Trichomonadida, once more highlights the diverse nature of eukaryotic proteins with the ability to form unique cytoskeletal filaments.
- Trichomonas vaginalis.
- convergent evolution
- intermediate filament proteins
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