The Complexity of Skeletal Transverse Dimension: From Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment Strategies to the Application of Collaborative Cross (CC) Mouse Model

Nezar Watted, Iqbal M. Lone, Kareem Midlej, Osayd Zohud, Obaida Awadi, Samir Masarwa, Ali Watted, Eva Paddenberg, Sebastian Krohn, Christian Kirschneck, Peter Proff, Fuad A. Iraqi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the significance of skeletal transverse dimension (STD) in orthodontic therapy and its impact on occlusal relationships. The primary goal is to enhance understanding and promote the integration of transverse skeletal diagnostics into routine orthodontic assessments. To achieve this aim, the study employs a comprehensive approach, utilizing model analysis, clinical assessments, radiographic measurements, and occlusograms. The initial step involves a meticulous assessment of deficiencies in the maxilla, mainly focusing on transverse dimension issues. Various successful diagnostic methods are employed to ascertain the type and presence of these deficiencies. Furthermore, the study compares surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME) and orthopedic maxillary expansion (OME) in addressing skeletal transverse issues. Stability assessments and efficacy analyses are conducted to provide valuable insights into the superiority of SARME over OME. The findings reveal that proper evaluation of STD is crucial in orthodontic diagnosis, as overlooking transverse dimension issues can lead to complications such as increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal interferences, and an elevated risk of gingival recession. Surgically assisted maxillary expansion emerges as a more stable solution than orthopedic methods. In conclusion, incorporating skeletal transverse diagnostics into routine orthodontic assessments is imperative for achieving optimal occlusal relationships and minimizing negative consequences on dentition, periodontium, and joints. The study emphasizes the significance of accurate three-dimensional assessments and recommends the consideration of SARME over OME for addressing skeletal transverse deficiencies. Finally, the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse model is also a novel mouse model for studying complex traits. Exploring the Collaborative Cross mouse model opens avenues for future research, promising further insights into transverse skeletal issues in orthodontics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalJournal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • central occlusion (CO)
  • centric relation (CR)
  • collaborative cross mouse model
  • occlusal relationships
  • orthodontic therapy
  • orthopedic maxillary expansion (OME)
  • skeletal transverse dimension (STD)
  • surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SARME)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Rheumatology
  • Histology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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