Voltage-gated sodium (Na v) channels are the molecular targets of β-scorpion toxins, which shift the voltage dependence of activation to more negative membrane potentials by a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Molecular determinants of β-scorpion toxin (CssIV) binding and action on rat brain sodium channels are located in the S1-S2 (IIS1-S2) and S3-S4 (IIS3-S4) extracellular linkers of the voltage-sensing module in domain II. In IIS1-S2, mutations of two amino acid residues (Glu 779 and Pro 782) significantly altered the toxin effect by reducing binding affinity. In IIS3-S4, six positions surrounding the key binding determinant, Gly 845, define a hot spot of high-impact residues. Two of these substitutions (A841N and L846A) reduced voltage sensor trapping. The other three substitutions (N842R, V843A, and E844N) increased voltage sensor trapping. These bidirectional effects suggest that the IIS3-S4 loop plays a primary role in determining both toxin affinity and efficacy. A high resolution molecular model constructed with the Rosetta-Membrane modeling system reveals interactions of amino acid residues in sodium channels that are crucial for toxin action with residues in CssIV that are required for its effects. In this model, the wedge-shaped CssIV inserts between the IIS1-S2 and IIS3-S4 loops of the voltage sensor, placing key amino acid residues in position to interact with binding partners in these extracellular loops. These results provide new molecular insights into the voltage sensor-trapping model of toxin action and further define the molecular requirements for the development of antagonists that can prevent or reverse toxicity of scorpion toxins.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology