Stable High-Capacity Elemental Sulfur Cathodes with Simple Process for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

Shunsuke Sawada, Hideki Yoshida, Shalom Luski, Elena Markevich, Gregory Salitra, Yuval Elias, Doron Aurbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lithium sulfur batteries are suitable for drones due to their high gravimetric energy density (2600 Wh/kg of sulfur). However, on the cathode side, high specific capacity with high sulfur loading (high areal capacity) is challenging due to the poor conductivity of sulfur. Shuttling of Li-sulfide species between the sulfur cathode and lithium anode also limits specific capacity. Sulfur-carbon composite active materials with encapsulated sulfur address both issues but require expensive processing and have low sulfur content with limited areal capacity. Proper encapsulation of sulfur in carbonaceous structures along with active additives in solution may largely mitigate shuttling, resulting in cells with improved energy density at relatively low cost. Here, composite current collectors, selected binders, and carbonaceous matrices impregnated with an active mass were used to award stable sulfur cathodes with high areal specific capacity. All three components are necessary to reach a high sulfur loading of 3.8 mg/cm2 with a specific/areal capacity of 805 mAh/g/2.2 mAh/cm2. Good adhesion between the carbon-coated Al foil current collectors and the composite sulfur impregnated carbon matrices is mandatory for stable electrodes. Swelling of the binders influenced cycling retention as electroconductivity dominated the cycling performance of the Li-S cells comprising cathodes with high sulfur loading. Composite electrodes based on carbonaceous matrices in which sulfur is impregnated at high specific loading and non-swelling binders that maintain the integrated structure of the composite electrodes are important for strong performance. This basic design can be mass produced and optimized to yield practical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4568
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • areal capacity
  • carbon paper
  • cathode
  • elemental sulfur
  • lithium sulfur battery
  • swelling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Drug Discovery
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry


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