Vibrational strong coupling results from the interaction between optically allowed molecular vibrational excitations and the resonant mode of an infrared cavity. Strong coupling leads to the formation of hybrid states, known as vibrational polaritons, which are readily observed in transmission measurements and a manifold of the reservoir states. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy of vibrational polaritons is elusive and has recently been the focus of both theoretical and experimental investigations. Because Raman measurements are frequently performed with high-numerical aperture excitation/collection optics, the angular dispersion of the strongly coupled system must be carefully considered. Herein, we experimentally investigated vibrational polaritons involving dispersive collective lattice resonances of infrared antenna arrays. Despite clear indications of the strong coupling to vibrational excitations in the transmission spectrum; we found that Raman spectra do not bear signatures of the polaritonic transitions. Detailed measurements indicate that the disappearance of the Raman signal is not due to the polariton dispersion in our samples. On the other hand, the Tavis-Cummings-Holstein model that we employed to interpret our results suggests that the ratio of the Raman transition strengths between the reservoir and the polariton states scales according to the number of strongly coupled molecules. Because the vibrational transitions are relatively weak, the number of molecules required to achieve strong coupling conditions is about 109 per unit cell of the array of infrared antennas. Therefore, the scaling predicted by the Tavis-Cummings-Holstein model can explain the absence of the polariton signatures in spontaneous Raman scattering experiments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry