Modulation of the neuronal K+/Cl− cotransporter 2 (KCC2) activity, which mediates Cl− export, is critical to neuronal function. Here, we demonstrate that KCC2 interacts with the SNARE protein synaptosome-associated protein 23, SNAP23, an essential component of membrane insertion machinery. Using KCC2 truncated mutants, we show that KCC2 C-terminal domain is essential for membrane targeting and SNAP23-dependent upregulation of KCC2 activity triggered by activation of the Zn2+-sensitive receptor mZnR/GPR39 in HEK293 cells. Expression of SNAP23 phosphorylation-insensitive mutants or inhibition of its upstream activator IκB kinase (IKK) prevents mZnR/GPR39 upregulation of KCC2 activity in mouse hippocampal neurons. We further find that SNAP23 interacts with Syntaxin 1A and KCC2, and that all three proteins exhibit increased membrane insertion following mZnR/GPR39 activation in neurons. Our results elucidate a G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent pathway for regulation of KCC activity, mediated via interaction with SNARE proteins.
- Cell biology
- Molecular physiology
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