In this study, we estimate sex differences in care complexity and cost of cardiac-related procedures in order to demonstrate the importance of sex as a risk adjuster in a hospital payment system. We use individual visit-level data for all adult Israelis who underwent either heart valve surgery (HVS) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) during the period 2014–2018 in publicly funded hospitals. We find that women undergoing a cardiac-related procedure are more likely to die during hospitalization, they have longer hospital stays, and overall, they are more likely to be care-complex than men. Furthermore, the cost of the surgery itself is higher for women than for men in the case of HVS (though not CABG), and the cost of the post-operative hospital stay is higher in the case of CABG (though not HVS). It is concluded that sex differences should be considered in the calculation of payment for cardiac-related procedures in order to reduce incentives for selection and reduce unwarranted variation in cardiac-care utilization and medical practice.
- Cardiac-related procedures
- Hospital payment
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
- Health Policy