Aims: Feeding regimens alter circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues, but the mechanism is not understood. We aimed to study whether soluble factors, rather than neuronal-based communication, directly influence circadian rhythms in the liver, in response to a nutritional treatment in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Methods: Cultured hepatocytes were treated with serum of insulin-treated T2D patients following either a three-meal diet (3Mdiet) or six-meal diet (6Mdiet) and the circadian expression of clock and metabolic genes was measured. Results: Serum of the 3Mdiet group led to increased amplitudes and daily mRNA levels of the positive limb of the circadian clock (Clock, Bmal1, Rorα). In parallel, serum of the 3Mdiet group led to the downregulation of the negative limb of the circadian clock (Cry1 and Per1), compared to both baseline and 6Mdiet. In contrast, serum of the 6Mdiet group led to a more distorted expression pattern. The catabolic genes Sirt1 and Ampk were significantly upregulated only by serum of the 3Mdiet group. Conclusions: Our results show that serum of type 2 diabetes patients consuming the 3Mdiet contains soluble factors that reset circadian rhythms leading to an expression pattern similar to that of healthy people. This clock pattern contributes to improved glucose metabolism.
- Circadian rhythms
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism