Secret-Sharing for NP

Ilan Komargodski, Moni Naor, Eylon Yogev

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

Abstract

A computational secret-sharing scheme is a method that enables a dealer, that has a secret, to distribute this secret among a set of parties such that a "qualified" subset of parties can efficiently reconstruct the secret while any "unqualified" subset of parties cannot efficiently learn anything about the secret. The collection of "qualified" subsets is defined by a monotone Boolean function. It has been a major open problem to understand which (monotone) functions can be realized by a computational secret-sharing scheme. Yao suggested a method for secret-sharing for any function that has a polynomial-size monotone circuit (a class which is strictly smaller than the class of monotone functions in P). Around 1990 Rudich raised the possibility of obtaining secret-sharing for all monotone functions in NP: In order to reconstruct the secret a set of parties must be "qualified" and provide a witness attesting to this fact. Recently, Garg et al. [ 14] put forward the concept of witness encryption, where the goal is to encrypt a message relative to a statement x is an element of L for a language L is an element of NP such that anyone holding a witness to the statement can decrypt the message, however, if x is not an element of L, then it is computationally hard to decrypt. Garg et al. showed how to construct several cryptographic primitives from witness encryption and gave a candidate construction. One can show that computational secret-sharing implies witness encryption for the same language. Our main result is the converse: we give a construction of a computational secret-sharing scheme for any monotone function in NP assuming witness encryption for NP and one-way functions. As a consequence we get a completeness theorem for secretsharing: computational secret-sharing scheme for any single monotone NP-complete function implies a computational secret-sharing scheme for every monotone function in NP.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-273
Number of pages20
JournalADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY - ASIACRYPT 2014, PT II
Volume8874
StatePublished - 2014
Event20th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security (Asiacrypt) - Kaoshiung, TAIWAN
Duration: 7 Dec 201411 Dec 2014

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