Roadmap on Label-Free Super-Resolution Imaging

Vasily N. Astratov, Yair Ben Sahel, Yonina C. Eldar, Luzhe Huang, Aydogan Ozcan, Nikolay Zheludev, Junxiang Zhao, Zachary Burns, Zhaowei Liu, Evgenii Narimanov, Neha Goswami, Gabriel Popescu, Emanuel Pfitzner, Philipp Kukura, Yi Teng Hsiao, Chia Lung Hsieh, Brian Abbey, Alberto Diaspro, Aymeric LeGratiet, Paolo BianchiniNatan T. Shaked, Bertrand Simon, Nicolas Verrier, Matthieu Debailleul, Olivier Haeberlé, Sheng Wang, Mengkun Liu, Yeran Bai, Ji Xin Cheng, Behjat S. Kariman, Katsumasa Fujita, Moshe Sinvani, Zeev Zalevsky, Xiangping Li, Guan Jie Huang, Shi Wei Chu, Omer Tzang, Dror Hershkovitz, Ori Cheshnovsky, Mikko J. Huttunen, Stefan G. Stanciu, Vera N. Smolyaninova, Igor I. Smolyaninov, Ulf Leonhardt, Sahar Sahebdivan, Zengbo Wang, Boris Luk'yanchuk, Limin Wu, Alexey V. Maslov, Boya Jin, Constantin R. Simovski, Stephane Perrin, Paul Montgomery, Sylvain Lecler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Label-free super-resolution (LFSR) imaging relies on light-scattering processes in nanoscale objects without a need for fluorescent (FL) staining required in super-resolved FL microscopy. The objectives of this Roadmap are to present a comprehensive vision of the developments, the state-of-the-art in this field, and to discuss the resolution boundaries and hurdles that need to be overcome to break the classical diffraction limit of the label-free imaging. The scope of this Roadmap spans from the advanced interference detection techniques, where the diffraction-limited lateral resolution is combined with unsurpassed axial and temporal resolution, to techniques with true lateral super-resolution capability that are based on understanding resolution as an information science problem, on using novel structured illumination, near-field scanning, and nonlinear optics approaches, and on designing superlenses based on nanoplasmonics, metamaterials, transformation optics, and microsphere-assisted approaches. To this end, this Roadmap brings under the same umbrella researchers from the physics and biomedical optics communities in which such studies have often been developing separately. The ultimate intent of this paper is to create a vision for the current and future developments of LFSR imaging based on its physical mechanisms and to create a great opening for the series of articles in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200029
JournalLaser and Photonics Reviews
Issue number12
Early online date30 Oct 2023
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • biomedical imaging
  • diffraction limit
  • label-free imaging
  • near-field imaging
  • optical microscopy
  • structured illumination
  • super-resolution

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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