Rhodamine B in dissolved and nano-bound forms: Indicators for light-based advanced oxidation processes

Efrat Shabat-Hadas, Hadas Mamane, Vitaly Gitis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rhodamine B (RhB) is a water-soluble fluorescent dye that is often used to determine flux and flow direction in biotechnological and environmental applications. In the current research, RhB in soluble (termed free) and virus-bound (termed nano-bound) forms was used as an efficiency indicator for three environmental processes. The degradation of free and nano-bound RhB by (i) direct UV photolysis and (ii) UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was studied in a collimated beam apparatus equipped with medium-pressure mercury vapor lamp. The degradation by (iii) solar light-induced photocatalysis was studied in a solar simulator with titanium dioxide and bismuth photocatalysts. Results showed negligible RhB degradation by direct UV and solar light, and its nearly linear degradation by UV/H2O2 and photocatalysis/photosensitization in the presence of a solid catalyst. Considerable adsorption of free RhB on bismuth-based catalyst vs. no adsorption of nano-bound RhB on this catalyst or of any form of the dye on titanium dioxide produced two important conclusions. First, the better degradation of free RhB by the bismuth catalyst suggests that close proximity of a catalyst hole and the decomposing molecule significantly influences degradation. Second, the soluble form of the dye might not be the best option for its use as an indicator. Nano-bound RhB showed high potential as an AOP indicator, featuring possible separation from water after the analysis.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1020-1027
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Bismuth
  • Photocatalysis
  • Rhodamine B
  • Titanium dioxide
  • UV
  • UV/HO

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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