Revascularization: A treatment for permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and incomplete root development

Ronald Wigler, Arieh Y. Kaufman, Shaul Lin, Nelly Steinbock, Hagai Hazan-Molina, Calvin D. Torneck

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Endodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp, with or without apical pathosis, poses several clinical challenges. There is a risk of inducing a dentin wall fracture or extending gutta-percha into the periapical tissue during compaction of the root canal filling. Although the use of calcium hydroxide apexification techniques or the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate as an apical stop has the potential to minimize apical extrusion of filling material, they do little in adding strength to the dentin walls. It is a well-established fact that in reimplanted avulsed immature teeth, revascularization of the pulp followed by continued root development can occur under ideal circumstances. At one time it was believed that revascularization was not possible in immature permanent teeth that were infected. Methods: An in-depth search of the literature was undertaken to review articles concerned with regenerative procedures and revascularization and to glean recommendations regarding the indications, preferred medications, and methods of treatment currently practiced. Results: Disinfection of the root canal and stimulation of residual stem cells can induce formation of new hard tissue on the existing dentin wall and continued root development. Conclusions: Although the outcome of revascularization procedures remains somewhat unpredictable and the clinical management of these teeth is challenging, when successful, they are an improvement to treatment protocols that leave the roots short and the walls of the root canal thin and prone to fracture. They also leave the door open to other methods of treatment in addition to extraction, when they fail to achieve the desired result.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-326
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013


  • Apexification
  • apexogenesis
  • immature permanent tooth
  • maturogenesis
  • mineral trioxide aggregate
  • regeneration
  • revascularization
  • revitalization
  • triple antibiotics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Dentistry


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