Reliability and correlation of different devices for the evaluation of primary implant stability: An in vitro study

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Our aim was to analyze the correlation between the IT evaluated by a surgical motor and the primary implant stability (ISQ) measured by two RFA devices, Osstell and Penguin, in an in vitro model. This study examines the effect of bone type (soft or dense), implant length (13 mm or 8 mm), and implant design (CC: conical connection; IH: internal hexagon), on this correlation. Ninety-six implants were inserted using a surgical motor (IT) into two types of synthetic foam blocks. Initial measurements for both the peak IT and ISQ were recorded at the point when implant insertion was stopped by the surgical motor, and the final measurements were recorded when the implant was completely inserted into the synthetic blocks using only the RFA devices. Our null hypothesis was that there is a good correlation between the devices, independent of the implant length, design, or bone type. We found a positive, significant correlation between the IT, and the Osstell and Penguin devices. Implant length and bone type did not affect this correlation. The correlation between the devices in the CC design was maintained; however, in the IH design it was maintained only between the RFA devices. We concluded that there is a high positive correlation between the IT and ISQ from a mechanical perspective, which was not affected by bone type or implant length but was affected by the implant design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5537
Issue number19
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Bone density
  • ISQ
  • Implant design
  • Implant stability
  • Insertion torque
  • Primary stability
  • RFA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Materials Science


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