Soil reflectance spectroscopy is a well-known technique to assess soil properties rapidly and quantitatively in both point (spectroscopy) and spatial (imaging spectroscopy (IS)) domains. The quantitative approach has been developed in the past two decades by many researchers, with much literature on the topic. Basically, this approach was adopted from other disciplines (e.g. food, textiles), whereas the mapping approach was incorporated with spectral-based remote sensing means. Soil contamination is an ever-growing concern, and a reliable and environmentally friendly method is needed to rapidly detect and monitor soil contaminants at any stage for the diagnosis of suspected contaminated areas, as well as for controlling rehabilitation processes. Conventional methods for investigating soil contamination based on point sampling and chemical analysis are time-consuming, costly and sometimes incorporate the use of environmentally damaging chemicals. Soil reflectance spectroscopy is a promising tool for the efficient detection and monitoring of soil contaminants. Using reflectance spectroscopy measurements, several direct and indirect soil properties, as well as soil contamination characteristics, can be extracted. Due to the vast amount of data in soil spectroscopy, be it point or image, data-modeling processes are required. This chapter reviews soil spectroscopy theory and its quantitative capabilities, as well as data-modeling methods for soil spectra that are related to soil contamination. Discussed contaminants include petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn and As, acid mine drainage and pesticides. Limitations, obstacles and problems in recording soil spectra in the field and in the laboratory are discussed, along with IS technology. The future potential of spectral technology and IS missions used for soil contamination monitoring is presented, based on ongoing worldwide initiatives. This chapter also provides some notes on how to merge this technology with other systems, such as a penetrating spectral device for underground measurements utilizing the catheterization approach.
|Title of host publication||Soil Contamination|
|Place of Publication||Rijeka|
|State||Published - 2011|