Recent Progress in Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Metal(Li/Na)–Sulfur Batteries

Ravindra Kumar Bhardwaj, David Zitoun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Metal–sulfur batteries, especially lithium/sodium–sulfur (Li/Na-S) batteries, have attracted widespread attention for large-scale energy application due to their superior theoretical energy density, low cost of sulfur compared to conventional lithium-ion battery (LIBs) cathodes and environmental sustainability. Despite these advantages, metal–sulfur batteries face many fundamental challenges which have put them on the back foot. The use of ether-based liquid electrolyte has brought metal–sulfur batteries to a critical stage by causing intermediate polysulfide dissolution which results in poor cycling life and safety concerns. Replacement of the ether-based liquid electrolyte by a solid electrolyte (SEs) has overcome these challenges to a large extent. This review describes the recent development and progress of solid electrolytes for all-solid-state Li/Na-S batteries. This article begins with a basic introduction to metal–sulfur batteries and explains their challenges. We will discuss the drawbacks of the using liquid organic electrolytes and the advantages of replacing liquid electrolytes with solid electrolytes. This article will also explain the fundamental requirements of solid electrolytes in meeting the practical applications of all solid-state metal–sulfur batteries, as well as the electrode–electrolyte interfaces of all solid-state Li/Na-S batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • all solid-state Li/Na-S batteries
  • composite electrolyte
  • inorganic solid electrolyte
  • metal-sulfur batteries
  • polymer electrolyte
  • solid electrolyte

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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