Quantum frames of reference and the relational flow of time

Michael Suleymanov, Eliahu Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this short review paper, relative evolution in time and related issues are analyzed within classical and quantum mechanics. We first discuss the basics of quantum frames of reference in both space and time. We then focus on the latter, and more specifically on the “timeless” approach to quantum mechanics due to Page and Wootters. We address time–energy uncertainty relations and the emergence of non-unitarity within this framework. We emphasize relational aspects of quantum time as well as unique features of non-inertial clock frames.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3325-3337
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Physical Journal: Special Topics
Issue number20-22
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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