Persistent COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients—Israeli society of infectious diseases consensus statement on diagnosis and management

Suzy E. Meijer, Yael Paran, Ana Belkin, Ronen Ben-Ami, Yasmin Maor, Lior Nesher, Khetam Hussein, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Immunocompromised patients with impaired humoral immunity are at risk for persistent COVID-19 (pCOVID), a protracted symptomatic disease with active viral replication. Objectives: To establish a national consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment, management, isolation, and prevention of pCOVID in adults. Sources: We base our suggestions on the available literature, our own experience, and clinical reasoning. Content: Literature on the treatment of pCOVID is scarce and consists of few case reports and case series. The available studies provide low-quality evidence for monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, antiviral drugs, and immunomodulators. Different combination therapies are described. Continuous viral replication and antiviral treatment may lead to the development of mutations that confer resistance to therapy. Implications: To reduce the risk of resistance and improve outcomes, we suggest treating pCOVID with a combination of antibody-based therapy and two antiviral drugs for duration of 5–10 days. Immunomodulatory therapy can be added in patients with an inflammatory clinical picture. In cases of treatment failure or relapse, prolonged antiviral treatment can be considered. For the prevention of pCOVID, we suggest active and passive vaccination and early initiation of treatment for acute COVID-19. Additional research on pCOVID treatment is urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Antivirals
  • Combined therapy
  • Convalescent plasma
  • Immunocompromised
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Persistent COVID-19

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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