Perceived functional resilience in schools according to key stakeholders

Arielle Kaim, Maya Siman-Tov, Shahar Lev-Ari, Bruria Adini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Amid the COVID-19 outbreak, Israel and numerous other governments closed schools as a precaution, leading to a sudden shift to online learning. The aim of the current study is to provide foundational insight into the perceived readiness of the school system to withstand future adversities, based on the challenges, complexities, as well as successes in adaptation faced by stakeholders during COVID-19. In this cross-sectional study, we assess the perceived levels of functional resilience of the school system among the key stakeholders of the Israeli education system-high school students, parents, teachers, and principals, as well as a composite functional resilience scale. The composite functional resilience consists of 10 main indexes: communication during distance learning (DL) and frontal learning (FL); Perceived stress scale-4 (PSS); psychosocial aspects during distance learning (DL) and frontal learning (FL); digital literacy; pedagogic support; resources; infrastructure; and distance versus frontal learning. The study findings demonstrate differences according to the stakeholders with regard to the perceived functional resilience and the composite functional resilience scores (e.g., students with respect to both of these scores exhibit the lowest results, while teachers display the highest scores). Furthermore, no one variable was significant across the board for all stakeholders in predicting the perceived functional resilience, with the most common predictors among the stakeholders being digital literacy, pedagogic support, PSS, as well as communication during distance and frontal learning. The findings of this study reveal areas for recommended priority actions to be conducted among school system stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1044
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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