Recently implemented quantum devices such as quantum processors and quantum simulators combine highly complicated quantum dynamics with high-resolution measurements. We present a passivity deformation methodology that sets constraints on the evolution of such quantum devices. The approach yields bounds that are often tighter, and thus more predictive, than the quantum microscopic analogue of the second law of thermodynamics. In particular, (i) it yields tight bounds even when the environment is microscopic; (ii) it successfully handles the ultracold limit; (iii) it enables one to account for constrained dynamics; and (iv) it bounds observables that do not appear in the second law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, this framework provides insights into nonthermal environments, correlated environments, coarse graining in microscopic setups, and the ability to detect heat leaks. Our findings can be explored and used in physical setups such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, neutral atoms in optical lattices, and more.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Computer Science(all)
- Applied Mathematics
- Mathematical Physics
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering