Particle-free compositions for printing dense 3D ceramic structures by digital light processing

Tamar Rosental, Sapir Mizrahi, Alexander Kamyshny, Shlomo Magdassi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


UV-curable particle-free ceramic compositions for stereolithography-based 3D printing technologies present a promising alternative to the commonly used particle-based compositions. So far, such compositions were mainly based on solutions of pre-ceramic polymers which limit their applications to silicon-containing materials. However, the application of particle-free inks for the fabrication of other ceramic materials, in particular dense polycrystalline ones, is very little explored. We present a new and general fabrication approach based on all-solution compositions, by combining sol–gel chemistry and photopolymerization, for obtaining dense 3D ceramic structures by DLP printing. The process is demonstrated here for the fabrication of barium titanate (BaTiO3). By using chelating solvent and monomer, a stable UV-curable solution is obtained. An aging period of 8–14 days was crucial for obtaining dense ceramic objects without any secondary phases. The heat treatment was found to affect the microstructure, density and hardness of the resulting ceramics. The presented process enables obtaining objects free of carbon materials, having a density as high as 98% of the theoretical value, and a hardness of 4.3 GPa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-266
Number of pages12
JournalVirtual and Physical Prototyping
Issue number3
StatePublished - 4 May 2021


  • 3D printing
  • Digital Light Processing (DLP)
  • additive manufacturing
  • barium titanate
  • ceramics
  • photopolymerization
  • sol–gel

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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