∀ or ∃?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper shows that in some axioms regarding the mixture of random variables, the requirement that the conclusions hold for all values of the mixture parameter can be weakened by requiring the existence of only one nontrivial value of the parameter, which need not be fixed. This is the case for the independence, betweenness, and mixture symmetry axioms. Unlike the standard axioms, these weaker versions cannot be refuted by experimental methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalTheoretical Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Betweenness
  • D81
  • independence axiom
  • mixture symmetry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Economics,Econometrics and Finance


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