We used spatially modulated optical imaging system to assess the effect of temperature elevation on intact brain tissue in a mouse heatstress model. Heatstress or heatstroke is a medical emergency defined by abnormally elevated body temperature that causes biochemical, physiological and hematological changes. During experiments, brain temperature was measured concurrently with a thermal camera while core body temperature was monitored with rectal thermocouple probe. Changes in a battery of macroscopic brain physiological parameters, such as hemoglobin oxygen saturation level, cerebral water content, as well as intrinsic tissue optical properties were monitored during temperature elevation. These concurrent changes reflect the pathophysiology of the brain during heatstress and demonstrate successful monitoring of thermoregulation mechanisms. In addition, the variation of tissue refractive index was calculated showing a monotonous decrease with increasing wavelength. We found increased temperature to greatly affect both the scattering properties and refractive index which represent cellular and subcellular swelling indicative of neuronal damage. The overall trends detected in brain tissue parameters were consistent with previous observations using conventional medical devices and optical modalities.