On the origin of photoperiod non-responsiveness in barley

Rajiv Sharma, Salar Shaaf, Kerstin Neumann, Yu Go, Martin Mascher, Michal David, Adnan Al-Yassin, Hakan Ozkan, Tom Blake, Sariel Hubner, Nora P. Castañeda-Álvarez, Stefania Grando, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Michael Baum, Andreas Graner, George Coupland, Klaus Pillen, Ehud Weiss, Ian J. Mackay, Wayne PowellBenjamin Kilian

Research output: Working paperPreprint


In barley, the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase is complex and under the control of photoperiodic and temperature conditions. One major gene involved is PPD-H1, a PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7) that encodes a component of the circadian clock. Mutation at PPD-H1 resulted in the photoperiod non-responsive ppd-H1 alleles that are beneficial under high latitudinal environments as they allow vegetative growth during the long-day summer conditions whereby higher yields are harvested by farmers. Utilizing a diverse GWAS panel of world-wide origin and a genome-wide gene-based set of 50K SNP markers, a strong association of days to heading with the PPD-H1 gene was detected in multi-location field trials. Re-sequencing of the gene spanning putative causative SNPs, SNP22 (Turner et al. 2005) and SNP48 (Jones et al. 2008), detected recombination between the two, previously reported to be in complete LD. Phenotyping of the recombinants and phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes supported the original conclusion of Turner et al. (2005) that SNP22, present in the CCT domain, is the most likely causative SNP. To infer the origin of non-responsiveness, the PPD-H1 gene was re-sequenced in a geo-referenced collection of 2057 wild and domesticated barleys and compared with the allelic status of the 6000-year-old barley sample from the Yoram cave in the Masada cliff. A monophyletic and post-domestication origin in the Fertile Crescent was found in contrast to the pre-domestication origin proposed by Jones et al. (2008). We show that the photoperiod non-responsiveness originated from Desert type wild barley in the Southern Levant.
Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 3 Jun 2020

Publication series

PublisherCold Spring Harbor Laboratory


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