Multi-Site Incorporation of Nonstandard Amino Acids into Protein-Based Biomaterials

Bar Israeli, Livne Vaserman, Miriam Amiram

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The ability of natural biomaterials to shape, support, and orchestrate function inspires our efforts to produce functional materials. Guided by protein-based biomaterials, template-directed incorporation of synthetic building blocks, such as nonstandard amino acids (nsAAs), can expand the functions of biomaterials by endowing them with new physical and biophysical properties. In this short review, we describe existing technologies for multi-site nsAA incorporation into proteins. We then discuss examples of the application of this technology for engineering new functions in artificial biopolymers, for creating bio-inspired adhesives, and for improving the stability of biomaterials. We conclude by briefly discussing recent advances in synthetic biology that have the potential to expand our ability to design protein-based biomaterials composed of numerous and increasingly exotic nonstandard monomers.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1118-1128
Number of pages11
JournalIsrael Journal of Chemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • biomaterials
  • nonstandard amino acids
  • orthogonal translation systems
  • protein-polymers
  • synthetic biology

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry


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