Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Activity with Sentinel Surveillance: Lessons Learned from the First Wave in Israel

Michal Bromberg, Lital Keinan-Boker, Lea Gur-Arie, Hanna Sefty, Michal Mandelboim, Rita Dichtiar, Zalman Kaufman, Aharona Glatman-Freedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Guidelines for pandemic preparedness emphasize the role of sentinel and syndromic surveillance in monitoring pandemic spread. OBJECTIVES: To examine advantages and obstacles of utilizing a sentinel influenza surveillance system to monitor community severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activity based on Israel's experience from mid-March to mid-May 2020. METHODS: Several modifications were applied to the influenza surveillance system. The clinical component relied mainly on pneumonia and upper respiratory infection (URI) consultations with primary care physicians as well as visits to emergency departments (ED) due to pneumonia. The virological data were based on nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from symptomatic patients who visited outpatient clinics. RESULTS: By week 12 of the pandemic, the crude and age-specific primary physician consultation rates due to URI and pneumonia declined below the expected level, reaching nadir that lasted from week 15 until week 20. Similarly, ED visits due to pneumonia were significantly lower than expected from weeks 14 and 15 to week 20. The virological surveillance started on week 13 with 6/253 of the swabs (2.3%) positive for SARS-CoV-2. There was a peak of 13/225 positive swabs on week 145.8%. During weeks 17-20, none of the swabs (47-97 per week) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. This trend was similar to national data. CONCLUSIONS: The virological component of the surveillance system showed the SARS-CoV-2 community spread, but had low sensitivity when virus activity was low. The clinical component, however, had no yield. Sentinel surveillance can assist in monitoring future novel pandemics and should be augmented in revised preparedness plans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-218
Number of pages4
JournalIsrael Medical Association Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  • pandemic preparedness
  • sentinel surveillance
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
  • syndromic surveillance

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Activity with Sentinel Surveillance: Lessons Learned from the First Wave in Israel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this