Modelling the resonant frequency associated with the spatio-temporal evolution of the bone-dental implant interface

Sapir Gershov, Jing Xie, Furqan A. Shah, Keren Shemtov-Yona, Daniel Rittel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dental implant stability is greatly affected by the mechanical properties of the bone-implant interface (BII), and it is key to long-term successful osseointegration. Implant stability is often evaluated using the Resonant Frequency Analysis (RFA) method, and also by the quality of this interface, namely the bone-implant contact (BIC). True to this day, there is a scarcity of models tying BIC, RFA and a spatially and mechanically evolving BII. In this paper, based on the contact/distance osteogenesis concept, a novel numerical spatio-temporal model of the implant, surrounding bone and evolving interface, was developed to assess the evolution of the interfacial stresses on the one hand and the corresponding resonant frequencies on the other. We postulate that, since the BIC percentage reaches saturation over a very short time, long before densification of the interface, it becomes irrelevant as to load transmission between the implant and the bone due to the existence of an open gap. Gap closure is the factor that provides continuity between the implant and the surrounding bone. The results of the calculated RFA evolution match and provide an explanation for the multiple clinical observations of a sharp initial decline in RFA, followed by a gradual increase and plateau formation. Statement of significance: A novel three-dimensional numerical model of an evolving bone-dental implant interface (BII) is presented. The spatio-temporal evolution of the bone-implant contact (BIC) and the BII, based on contact/distance (CO/DO) osteogenesis, is modeled. A central outcome is that, until BII maturation into a solid continuous bone (no open gap between CO-DO fronts), the bone-implant load transfer is hampered, irrespective of the BIC. The resonant frequencies’ evolution of the jawbone-BII-implant is calculated to reproduce the well-established implant stability analysis based on the Resonant Frequency Analysis. The results resemble those reported clinically, and here too, the determinant transition occurs only after interfacial gap closure. Those results should motivate clinicians to re-consider structural continuity of the BII rather than the BIC only.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-311
Number of pages10
JournalActa Biomaterialia
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Bone implant contact
  • Bone implant interface
  • Numerical simulation
  • Osteointegration
  • Resonant frequency analysis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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