Microbial Rhodopsins: The Last Two Decades

Andrey Rozenberg, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori, Oded Béjà

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Microbial rhodopsins are diverse photoreceptive proteins containing a retinal chromophore and are found in all domains of cellular life and are even encoded in genomes of viruses. These rhodopsins make up two families: type 1 rhodopsins and the recently discovered heliorhodopsins. These families have seven transmembrane helices with similar structures but opposing membrane orientation. Microbial rhodopsins participate in a portfolio of light-driven energy and sensory transduction processes. In this review we present data collected over the last two decades about these rhodopsins and describe their diversity, functions, and biological and ecological roles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-447
Number of pages21
JournalAnnual Review of Microbiology
StatePublished - 2021


  • heliorhodopsins
  • ion pumps
  • microbial rhodopsins
  • photosensors
  • retinal

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Microbial Rhodopsins: The Last Two Decades'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this