Magnéli-Phase Ti4O7-Doped Laser-Induced Graphene Surfaces and Filters for Pollutant Degradation and Microorganism Removal

Ashish Kumar, Najmul H. Barbhuiya, Kritika Jashrapuria, Nandini Dixit, Christopher J. Arnusch, Swatantra P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has recently become a point of attraction globally as an environmentally friendly method to fabricate graphene foam in a single step using a CO2 laser. The electrical properties of LIG are studied in different environmental applications, such as bacterial inactivation, antibiofouling, and pollutant sensing. Furthermore, metal or nonmetal doping of graphene enhances its catalytical performance in pollutant degradation and decontamination. Magnéli phase (TinO2n-1) is a substoichiometric titanium oxide known for its high electrocatalytic behavior and chemical inertness and is being explored as a membrane or electrode material for environmental decontamination. Here, we show the fabrication and characterization of LIG-Magnéli-phase (Ti4O7) titanium suboxide composites as electrodes and filters on poly(ether sulfone). Unlike undoped LIG electrodes, the doped Ti4O7-LIG electrodes exhibit enhanced electrochemical activity, as demonstrated in electrochemical characterization using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Due to the in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals on the surface, the doped electrodes exhibit increase in methylene blue degradation and microorganism removal. Effects of voltage and doping were examined, resulting in a clear trend of degradation and decontamination performance proportional to the doping concentration and applied voltage giving the best result at 2.5 V for 10% Ti4O7 doping. The LIG-Ti4O7 surfaces also showed biofilm inhibition against mixed bacterial culture. The flow-through filtration using a LIG-Ti4O7 conductive filter showed complete bacterial killing with 6 log removal in the permeate at 2.5 V, an enhancement of ∼2.5 log compared to undoped LIG filters at a flow rate of ∼500 L m-2 h-1. The facile fabrication of Ti4O7-doped LIG with enhanced electrochemical properties can be effectively used for energy and environmental applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52448-52458
Number of pages11
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Issue number46
StatePublished - 23 Nov 2022


  • Magnéli phases
  • antibacterial
  • antibiofouling
  • conductive filter
  • electrocatalyst
  • laser-induced graphene

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)


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