Lead-acid batteries and lead–carbon hybrid systems: A review

Naresh Vangapally, Tirupathi Rao Penki, Yuval Elias, Sadananda Muduli, Satyanarayana Maddukuri, Shalom Luski, Doron Aurbach, Surendra Kumar Martha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Lead-acid systems dominate the global market owing to simple technology, easy fabrication, availability, and mature recycling processes. However, the sulfation of negative lead electrodes in lead-acid batteries limits its performance to less than 1000 cycles in heavy-duty applications. Incorporating activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, graphite, and other allotropes of carbon and compositing carbon with metal oxides into the negative active material significantly improves the overall health of lead-acid batteries. Carbons play a vital role in advancing the properties of lead-acid batteries for various applications, including deep depth of discharge cycling, partial state-of-charge, and high-rate partial state-of-charge cycling. Therefore, lead-carbon hybrid batteries and supercapacitor systems have been developed to enhance energy-power density and cycle life. This review article provides an overview of lead-acid batteries and their lead-carbon systems, benefits, limitations, mitigation strategies, and mechanisms and provides an outlook.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233312
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 30 Sep 2023


  • Lead-acid batteries
  • Lead-carbon hybrid systems
  • Negative active materials
  • Sulfation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Lead-acid batteries and lead–carbon hybrid systems: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this