Interoceptive technologies for psychiatric interventions: From diagnosis to clinical applications

Felix Schoeller, Adam Haar Horowitz, Abhinandan Jain, Pattie Maes, Nicco Reggente, Leonardo Christov-Moore, Giovanni Pezzulo, Laura Barca, Micah Allen, Roy Salomon, Mark Miller, Daniele Di Lernia, Giuseppe Riva, Manos Tsakiris, Moussa A. Chalah, Arno Klein, Ben Zhang, Teresa Garcia, Ursula Pollack, Marion TrousselardCharles Verdonk, Guillaume Dumas, Vladimir Adrien, Karl Friston

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Interoception—the perception of internal bodily signals—has emerged as an area of interest due to its implications in emotion and the prevalence of dysfunctional interoceptive processes across psychopathological conditions. Despite the importance of interoception in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, its experimental manipulation remains technically challenging. This is due to the invasive nature of existing methods, the limitation of self-report and unimodal measures of interoception, and the absence of standardized approaches across disparate fields. This article integrates diverse research efforts from psychology, physiology, psychiatry, and engineering to address this oversight. Following a general introduction to the neurophysiology of interoception as hierarchical predictive processing, we review the existing paradigms for manipulating interoception (e.g., interoceptive modulation), their underlying mechanisms (e.g., interoceptive conditioning), and clinical applications (e.g., interoceptive exposure). We suggest a classification for interoceptive technologies and discuss their potential for diagnosing and treating mental health disorders. Despite promising results, considerable work is still needed to develop standardized, validated measures of interoceptive function across domains and before these technologies can translate safely and effectively to clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105478
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Aberrant emotional processing
  • Active inference: mood and anxiety disorders
  • Artificial sensations
  • Emotional augmentation
  • False feedback
  • Interoception
  • Interoceptive conditioning
  • Interoceptive exposure
  • Interoceptive illusions
  • Interoceptive modulation
  • Precision weighting
  • Predictive processing
  • Translational psychiatry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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