The immune and enteric nervous (ENS) systems monitor the frontier with commensal and pathogenic microbes in the colon. We investigated whether FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells functionally interact with the ENS. Indeed, microbe-responsive RORγ+ and Helios+ subsets localized in close apposition to nitrergic and peptidergic nerve fibers in the colon lamina propria (LP). Enteric neurons inhibited in vitro Treg (iTreg) differentiation in a cell-contact-independent manner. A screen of neuron-secreted factors revealed a role for interleukin-6 (IL-6) in modulating iTreg formation and their RORγ+ proportion. Colonization of germfree mice with commensals, especially RORγ+ Treg inducers, broadly diminished colon neuronal density. Closing the triangle, conditional ablation of IL-6 in neurons increased total Treg cells but decreased the RORγ+ subset, as did depletion of two ENS neurotransmitters. Our findings suggest a regulatory circuit wherein microbial signals condition neuronal density and activation, thus tuning Treg cell generation and immunological tolerance in the gut.