Interactive cryptographic proofs of quantumness using mid-circuit measurements

Daiwei Zhu, Gregory D. Kahanamoku-Meyer, Laura Lewis, Crystal Noel, Or Katz, Bahaa Harraz, Qingfeng Wang, Andrew Risinger, Lei Feng, Debopriyo Biswas, Laird Egan, Alexandru Gheorghiu, Yunseong Nam, Thomas Vidick, Umesh Vazirani, Norman Y. Yao, Marko Cetina, Christopher Monroe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ability to perform measurements in the middle of a quantum circuit is a powerful resource. It underlies a wide range of applications, from remote state preparation to quantum error correction. Here we apply mid-circuit measurements for a particular task: demonstrating quantum computational advantage. The goal of such a demonstration is for a quantum device to perform a computational task that is infeasible for a classical device with comparable resources. In contrast to existing demonstrations, the distinguishing feature of our approach is that the classical verification process is efficient, both in asymptotic complexity and in practice. Furthermore, the classical hardness of performing the task is based upon well-established cryptographic assumptions. Protocols with these features are known as cryptographic proofs of quantumness. Using a trapped-ion quantum computer, we perform mid-circuit measurements by spatially isolating portions of the ion chain via shuttling. This enables us to implement two interactive cryptographic proofs of quantumness, which when suitably scaled to larger systems, promise the efficient verification of quantum computational advantage. Our methods can be applied to a range of interactive quantum protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1725-1731
Number of pages7
JournalNature Physics
Issue number11
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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