Integrating Clinical, Laboratory and Imaging Tests in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


A diagnosis of an acute pulmonary embolism requires evaluation of risk factors and integration of clinical, laboratory and imaging tests. Clinical probability is determined using a validated prediction score, such as modified Wells or revised Geneva scores. D-dimer testing is recommended in patients with low or intermediate clinical probability, but should not be performed in high probability patients. A “PERC” approach (“pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria”) is recommended in low risk patients. Use of age adjusted D-dimer cut-off and variable D-dimer cut-off according to presence of risk factors, reduces the number of unnecessary imaging tests. High clinical probability patients and those with elevated D-dimer values should perform an imaging study, usually computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or a radionuclide ventilation/perfusion scan.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationPulmonary Embolism
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9783030870904
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • CTPA
  • Clinical probability
  • D-dimer
  • Integrated approach
  • Pulmonary embolism

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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