Background: The goal of neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) in breast cancer is to downstage tumors and downgrade treatment. Indications are constantly evolving. These changes raise practical questions for planning of surgery after NST. Summary: In this review we discuss current evolving aspects of surgery of the breast after NST. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) eligibility increases after NST - both neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Adequate margin width in NST and upfront surgery are similar - "no tumor on ink"for invasive cancer. Oncoplastic breast surgery after NST is feasible - both for BCS and mastectomy with reconstruction. There is increasing interest in the possibility of omitting surgery in patients with a complete response to NAC. Several trials are being conducted in aim of achieving acceptable prediction of pathological complete response, by combination of imaging and percutaneous biopsy of the tumor bed, as well as assessing the safety of such an approach. Key Messages: Surgery of the breast after NST should be determined not only according to biologic and anatomic parameters at diagnosis, but is dynamic, and must be tailored according to the response to therapy. The omission of surgery in exceptional responders after NAC is being explored.
- Breast cancer
- Surgical therapy
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