Improving compactness of 3d metallic microstructures printed by laser-induced forward transfer

Niv Gorodesky, Sharona Sedghani-Cohen, Ofer Fogel, Amir Silber, Maria Tkachev, Zvi Kotler, Zeev Zalevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been shown to be a useful technique for the manufacturing of micron-scale metal structures. LIFT is a high-resolution, non-contact digital printing method that can support the fabrication of complex shapes and multi-material structures in a single step under ambient conditions. However, LIFT printed metal structures often suffer from inferior mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties when compared to their bulk metal counterparts, and often are prone to enhanced chemical corrosion. This is due mostly to their non-compact structures, which have voids and inter-droplet delamination. In this paper, a theoretical framework together with experimental results of achievable compactness limits is presented for a variety of metals. It is demonstrated that compactness limits depend on material properties and jetting conditions. It is also shown how a specific choice of materials can yield compact structures, for example, when special alloys are chosen along with a suitable donor construct. The example of printed amorphous ZrPd is detailed. This study contributes to a better understanding of the limits of implementing LIFT for the fabrication of metal structures, and how to possibly overcome some of these limitations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number291
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • 3D metal printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Improved properties
  • Laser-induced forward transfer
  • Metal glass
  • Printing of micro-electronics devices

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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