## Abstract

Graph spanners and emulators are sparse structures that approximately preserve distances of the original graph. While there has been an extensive amount of work on additive spanners, so far little attention was given to weighted graphs. Only very recently as reported by Ahmed et al. (in: Adler I, Müller H (eds) Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science - 46th International Workshop, WG 2020, Leeds, UK). extended the classical +2 (respectively, +4) spanners for unweighted graphs of size O(n^{3 / 2}) (resp., O(n^{7 / 5})) to the weighted setting, where the additive error is + 2 W (resp., + 4 W). This means that for every pair u, v, the additive stretch is at most + 2 W_{u}_{,}_{v}, where W_{u}_{,}_{v} is the maximal edge weight on the shortest u- v path (weights are normalized so that the minimum edge weight is 1). In addition, as reported by Ahmed et al. (in: Adler I, Müller H (eds) Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science - 46th International Workshop, WG 2020, Leeds, UK). showed a randomized algorithm yielding a + 8 W_{max} spanner of size O(n^{4 / 3}) , here W_{max} is the maximum edge weight in the entire graph. In this work we improve the latter result by devising a simple deterministic algorithm for a + (6 + ε) W spanner for weighted graphs with size O(n^{4 / 3}) (for any constant ε> 0), thus nearly matching the classical +6 spanner of size O(n^{4 / 3}) for unweighted graphs. Furthermore, we show a + (2 + ε) W subsetwise spanner of size O(n·|S|), improving the + 4 W_{max} result of as reported by Ahmed et al. (in: Adler I, Müller H (eds) Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science - 46th International Workshop, WG 2020, Leeds, UK). (that had the same size). We also show a simple randomized algorithm for a + 4 W emulator of size O~ (n^{4 / 3}). In addition, we show that our technique is applicable for very sparse additive spanners, that have linear size. It was proved by Abboud A, Bodwin G (J ACM 64(4):28–12820 2017) that such spanners must suffer polynomially large stretches. For weighted graphs, we use a variant of our simple deterministic algorithm that yields a linear size +O~(n·W) spanner, and we also obtain a tradeoff between size and stretch. Finally, generalizing the technique of Dor D et al. (SIAM J Comput 29:1740–1759, 2000) for unweighted graphs, we devise an efficient randomized algorithm producing a + 2 W spanner for weighted graphs of size O~ (n^{3 / 2}) in O~ (n^{2}) time.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 385-394 |

Number of pages | 10 |

Journal | Distributed Computing |

Volume | 36 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Sep 2023 |

## Keywords

- Graph theory
- Pure additive spanners

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Theoretical Computer Science
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Computational Theory and Mathematics