Identification of dopant site and its effect on electrochemical activity in Mn-doped lithium titanate

Harishchandra Singh, Mehmet Topsakal, Klaus Attenkofer, Tamar Wolf, Michal Leskes, Yandong Duan, Feng Wang, John Vinson, Deyu Lu, Anatoly Frenkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Doped metal oxide materials are commonly used for applications in energy storage and conversion, such as batteries and solid oxide fuel cells. The knowledge of the electronic properties of dopants and their local environment is essential for understanding the effects of doping on the electrochemical properties. Using a combination of x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) experiment and theoretical modeling we demonstrate that in the dilute (1 at. %) Mn-doped lithium titanate (Li4/3Ti5/3O4, or LTO) the dopant Mn2+ ions reside on tetrahedral (8a) sites. First-principles Mn K-edge XANES calculations revealed the spectral signature of the tetrahedrally coordinated Mn as a sharp peak in the middle of the absorption edge rise, caused by the 1s -> 4p transition, and it is important to include the effective electron-core hole Coulomb interaction in order to calculate the intenisty of this peak accurately. This dopant location can explain the impedance of Li migration through the LTO lattice during the charge-discharge process, and, as a result, the observed remarkable 20% decrease in electrochemical capacity of the 1% Mn-doped LTO compared to pristine LTO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125403
Number of pages8
JournalPhysical Review Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - 20 Dec 2018


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