Objective: To investigate implicit and explicit self-esteem and academic self-evaluation among children with ADHD as a function of parenting styles, namely, authoritarian, authoritative and permissive parenting. Method: Participants included 43 children with ADHD and 35 non-ADHD controls who filled out self-concept and perceived parenting style questionnaires. They also took an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that measured unacknowledged self-esteem. Results: Lower self-esteem was found among children with ADHD than among controls, with stronger effect on the implicit level. Perceived authoritarian parenting was related to lower implicit self-esteem among children with ADHD. Higher self-esteem was found in the authoritative than in the permissive parenting groups in the non-ADHD control group but not among children with ADHD. Conclusion: The role of parental support versus authoritarian parenting in terms of implicit self-esteem points to the importance of promoting responsiveness strategies among parents in the treatment of children with ADHD.
- implicit measures
- parenting styles
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Clinical Psychology